Discussion: Early chiropractic philosophy is compared with the progression of general systems theory from its roots in vitalistic thinking to quantum theory. The writings of D.D. Palmer predate those of Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1901-1972), the acknowledged founder of general systems theory. The mechanistic/vitalistic dualism of chiropractic is explored against theories.
Conclusion: Early and contemporary general systems theories parallel some of the writings of chiropractic authors and share some common vitalistic ground.
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