In the past decade a growing integration of behavioral and urological methods has produced a small quantitative literature of urodynamic biofeedback. This paper reviews reports of urodynamic retraining for retentive dysfunctions of the lower urinary tract. Cases are grouped according to types of feedback. The relative invasiveness of the various techniques are considered, and implications for conservative practitioners are suggested. The limitations of available data are detailed, and suggestions for future research are offered.
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