Twenty subjects (6 male, 14 female) with low back pain were examined by two experienced and licensed chiropractic doctors (E1 and E2). Both examiners examined the patients using a Toftness Electromagnetic Radiation Receiver (EMRR) and by manual palpation (MP) of the spinous processes. Interexaminer reliability was calculated at three sites (L3, L4, L5) for the following combinations: a) E1,MP--E2,MP; b) E1,EMRR--E2,EMRR; c) E1,MP--E2,EMRR; and) d) E2,MP--E1,EMRR, and intraexaminer reliability was calculated for the following variables: e) E1,MP--E1,EMRR; and f) E2,MP--E2,EMRR. Results of a Kappa coefficient analysis for interexaminer reliability of the stated combinations and at the specific sites were: a) -0.071, 0.400, 0.200; b) -0.013, 0.100, -0.120; c) 0.286, 0.300, 0.200; d) -0.081, 0.000, 0.048. These results predominantly indicate a poor to fair interexaminer reliability. The results of a Kappa coefficient analysis for intraexaminer reliability of the stated combinations were: e) 0.111, 0.400, 0.737; f) 0.000, 0.100, 0.368. These results indicate a poor to fair reliability. It was concluded that in subjects with low back pain the EMRR may not be a reliable indicator of spinal joint dysfunction.
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