Forty-five original articles addressing the subject of examiner reliability were reviewed to determine if the findings were adequately substantiated by the statistical analyses and experimental designs employed by the authors. Only 10 studies were determined to have properly supported conclusions, while an additional three studies contained correct conclusions by coincidence. Eight investigations had invalid designs and three contained claims that were contradicted by the author's findings. Half the studies were found to have conclusions that were based on inappropriate or inconclusive statistical analysis. To date, the research presented in the chiropractic literature cannot substantiate claims concerning the reliability of any diagnostic instrumentation or palpatory procedures commonly employed by chiropractic physicians.
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