Neuralgic amyotrophy is a localized neuritis usually affecting the nerves of the brachial plexus. The condition is characterized initially by shoulder pain which quickly subsides and is followed by motor, sensory and reflex changes. Neuralgic amyotrophy is of unknown aetiology but can be associated with a great variety of disorders. New evidence suggests that it may be an immunei-mediated disease. As this case demonstrates, accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment at an early stage are important to minimize muscle atrophy and prevent the development of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder secondary to disuse.