Although the Cleveland family is well known in the profession for the two colleges that carry its name, relatively few of the details of the early activities of these chiropractic pioneers are recalled. This paper traces the early lives and careers of Ruth Ashworth and Carl S. Cleveland, Sr. from their education and marriage at the Palmer School in 1917 through their college operations and national professional activities before the start of the National Chiropractic Association's educational reform initiatives in the mid-1930s. The pair was active in Missouri chiropractors' struggles for licensure in the 1920s and fought to prevent the enactment of basic science legislation later on. The Clevelands remained allied to B. J. Palmer and the Chiropractic Health Bureau (today's International Chiropractors' Association) after the introduction of the neurocalometer (NCM) in 1924. However, they followed a less strident and less extreme course within straight chiropractic than did their Davenport mentor. The Cleveland College perpetuated a full-spine approach to chiropractic technique and always included diagnostic instruction. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, Carl Cleveland's more moderate stance found favor within the unification efforts centered in the International Chiropractic Congress, and he served during 1931-1933 as president of the Congress' division of school leaders. The Cleveland Chiropractic College's battle for economic survival during the lean days of the nation's economic depression is a testimony to its founders' vision and commitment to chiropractic education.
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