Background: In Denmark, chiropractors in primary care work as independent private contractors regulated by the Danish National Health Authorities. The regulation includes partial reimbursement intended for standardised care packages for lumbar and cervical radiculopathy and lumbar spinal stenosis. Random checks have shown lower use than expected. This study aimed to describe and explore the utilisation of standardised chiropractic care packages and identify barriers to uptake.
Methods: A convergent mixed-method design was conceptualised. The use of standardised care packages was collected by register data. Potential determinants of difference in utilisation were assessed using a modified version of the Determinants of Implementation Behaviour Questionnaire (DIBQ) divided into 13 domains and sent to chiropractors in private clinics in Denmark in 2019. An open-ended question was added to the questionnaire, and thematic content analysis was applied. Qualitative findings were used to expand on the DIBQ data providing further insight into the clinicians’ perspective on standardised care packages.
Results: Registry data of 244 included chiropractic clinics showed limited and inconsistent use of the standardised chiropractic care packages. A total of 269 chiropractors (44%) answered the DIBQ, and 45 provided data for the qualitative analyses. At least 60% of the clinicians answered ‘Strongly agree’ or ‘Agree’ in 10 out of 13 DIBQ domains suggesting a positive attitude towards using the standardised care packages. Three domains were identified as ‘problematic’ as more than 20% of clinicians disagreed or strongly disagreed: ‘Socio-political context’, ‘Goals’ and ‘Innovation’. Qualitative findings indicated that lack of usage of the standardised care packages was mainly related to the practical organization of standardised care, the chiropractor’s role when managing patients, and the patient population of interest to the clinic (e.g., children, athletes).
Conclusion: In general, Danish chiropractors displayed positive attitudes towards standardised packages of care. However, considerable variation in the use of the standardised care programs was observed. Low utilisation seemed mainly related to logistics, the chiropractor’s role, collaboration with GPs, and the patient population of interest to the clinic. These findings should be further explored in more extensive qualitative studies to inform implementation initiatives to increase and rectify utility.
Author keywords: Chiropractor - Standardised care package - Determinants of implementation behaviour questionnaire
Author affiliations: RKJ, IR, CM: Department of Sport Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense M, Denmark; RKJ, EL, HWC: Chiropractic Knowledge Hub, Odense M, Denmark; IR: University College Lillebaelt, Niels Bohrs Allé 1, 5230, Odense M, Denmark.
Corresponding author: Rikke Krüger Jensen: firstname.lastname@example.org
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