Background: Recent clinical practice guidelines for the management of non-specific low back pain (LBP) recommend using stratified care approaches. To date, no study has assessed barriers and facilitators for health professionals in using stratified care approaches for managing non-specific LBP in the Canadian primary care setting. This study aimed to identify and contrast barriers and facilitators to using the stratified care approaches for non-specific LBP among Canadian physiotherapists and chiropractors.
Methods: Individual telephone interviews, underpinned by the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), explored beliefs and attitudes about, and identified barriers and facilitators to the use of stratified care approaches for managing non-specific LBP in a purposive sample of 13 chiropractors and 14 physiotherapists between September 2015 and June 2016. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by two independent assessors using directed content analysis.
Results: Three and seven TDF domains were identified as likely relevant for physiotherapists and chiropractors, respectively. Shared key beliefs (and relevant domains of the TDF) for both physiotherapists and chiropractors included: lack of time, cost, and expertise (Environmental Context and Resources); and consulting more experienced colleagues and chronic patients with important psychological overlay (Social Influences). Unique key domains were identified among physiotherapists: incompatibility with achieving other objectives (Goals), and chiropractors: confidence in using stratified care approaches (Beliefs about Capabilities); intention to use stratified care approaches (Intentions); awareness and agreement with stratified care approaches (Knowledge); assessment of readiness for change and intentional planning behaviour (Behavioural Regulation); and improving the management of non-specific LBP patients and the uptake of evidence-based practice (Beliefs about Consequences).
Conclusions: Several shared and unique barriers and facilitators to using the stratified care approaches for non-specific LBP among Canadian physiotherapists and chiropractors were identified. Findings may help inform the design of tailored theory-based knowledge translation interventions to increase the uptake of stratified care approaches in clinical practice.
Author keywords: Knowledge translation — Interviews — Stratified care approach — Low Back Pain — Chiropractic — Physiotherapy — Evidence-based practice — Theoretical domains framework
Author affiliations: FMAZ, NEM: School of Physical and Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; FMAZ, NEM, AEB: Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire en réadaptation (CRIR), Montréal, Quebec, Canada; SDF: Department of Chiropractic, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW Australia; SDF: School of Rehabilitation Therapy, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada; 5AMP: Centre for Implementation Research, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; AEB: Département chiropratique, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Quebec, Canada
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