Vitamin D is one of the essential nutrients to sustain human health. As a member of the steroid hormone family, it has a classic role in regulating metabolism of calcium and a non-classic role in affecting cell proliferation and differentiation. Epidemiological studies have shown that 250HD deficiency is closely associated with common chronic diseases such as bone metabolic disorders, tumors, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. 250HD deficiency is also a risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders and autoimmune diseases. Vitamin D immunomodulatory effects are suppresion of adaptive immunity through a reduction in the production of interleukin (IL)-2, gamma interferon, and tumor necrosis factor, inhibition of expression of IL-6, secretion and production of autoantibodies by B lymphocytes, and activation of innate immunity.
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