OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a Spanish version of the Whiplash Disability Questionnaire (WDQ) for the Spanish population with acute whiplash-associated disorder (WAD).
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire validation study. Adults with acute WAD (grade I to III) were enrolled within 3 weeks of their injury. A blinded forward and back translation of the WDQ was made from English to Spanish, and the resulting back-translation version was compared with the original. Patients with WAD completed the Spanish version of the 13-item WDQ. The developed questionnaire was assessed using psychometric statistical analysis including correlation with the numerical rating score for pain, Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire, Neck Disability Index, and 36-item Short Form Health Survey.
RESULTS: Fifty-six patients completed the questionnaire, the mean age was 33.9 years (standard deviation [SD] = 10.5), and 76.8% were women. Participants were enrolled 13.9 days (SD 4.9) after the injury, with 14.3% presenting with WAD grade I and 85.7% with WAD grade II. The mean WDQ score was 62 (SD = 31). Two factors were detected, and the factor structure remained stable after translation. Positive correlations were identified between the total WDQ score and the numerical rating score, Neck Pain Questionnaire, and Neck Disability Index results, with a strong negative correlation with the 36-item Short Form Health Survey.
CONCLUSION: The Spanish version of WDQ is psychometrically reliable and a valid instrument to measure the disability status in patients with acute WAD within the clinic.
Author keywords: Whiplash Injuries, Disability Evaluation, Patient Outcome Assessment
Author affiliations: ABA, LMRM: Pathology of the Spine Research Group, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology. Hospital Nacional de Parapléjicos, Toledo, Spain; EHM: Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Toledo, Spain; GAM, IGA, DSM: Sensorimotor Function Group, Hospital Nacional de Parapléjicos, Toledo, Spain; ASF: Health Sciences Institute, Talavera de la Reina, Toledo, Spain; JGS: Toledo Physiotherapy Research Group (GIFTO), Nursing and Physiotherapy School, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Toledo, Spain.
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