This narrative review article aims to examine the current evidence surrounding the orthopedic physical exam procedures related to various lower extremity conditions and provide an overview of these examinations. A narrative review was performed using online databases, authoritative textbooks, and a mobile orthopedic exam application. When multiple studies existed for a single orthopedic test, we reported results from the highest-quality studies and used studies with the highest Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) scores. Additionally, we attempted to highlight when orthopedic physical exams were described, but have yet to be evaluated in order to establish diagnostic accuracy. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the evidence-based orthopedic physical exams for many lower extremity conditions.
Author keywords: Evidence Based Practice; Injury, Leg; Injuries, Hip; Injury, Knee; Injury, Ankle; Injuries, Foot
Author affiliations: CBR: Assistant Professor, Palmer College of Chiropractic Life Science & Foundations Department; EFL: Student, Doctor of Chiropractic Program, Palmer College of Chiropractic, Davenport, IA; ZJ: Doctor of Chiropractic, Colorado Occupational Medical Partners, Denver, CO
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