In 1965, Dr. Carl S. Cleveland, Jr., published a groundbreaking pilot study investigating the visceral effects of vertebral subluxations. His paper was the culmination of work that began in the early 1950's with the application of a patent for a surgical splint to artificially misalign the vertebrae of small animal subjects. While further studies were never published by Cleveland, he influenced dozens of other animal studies as well as developing an experimental model for creating spinal fixations that is still in use over fifty years later.
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