METHODS: This study is a multicenter interview-based study conducted in selected hospitals and health centers from urban areas in Iran and India. The case group included postmenopausal osteoporotic women who were identified as patients with bone density higher than 2.5 SD below average of young normal bone density (in L1-L4) spine region interest and/or total femoral region) by using DEXA method. The controls were chosen from postmenopausal women with normal bone density (in L1-L4 spine and total femoral regions using DEXA method) matching in age groups was the strategy of choice. The sample sizes included from Iran a total of 363 subjects (178 osteoporotic and 185 normal) and from India a total of 354 subjects (203 osteoporotic and 151 normal).
RESULTS: The significant (p<0.05) risk factors in present study population with their Odds Ratios (in parenthesis, respectively in Iran and India) were as follow: Lower education defined as less than class 12 or nil college (2.1) (2.7), duration of menopause greater than 5 years: (2.2)(1.4), Menarche age (after 14 years): (1.9)(1.6), Menopause age (before 45 years): (1.1) (2), Parity more than 3: (1.1) (1), Bone and joint problem (2.3) (2.2). Calcium supplementation (0.6) and HRT (0.4) were shown as protective factors and steroid therapy (3.3) was found as a risk factor in Iran. Calcium supplementation more than 1 year (0.3) was shown as a protective factor in India. Pure vegetarianism: (2.2) and Red meat consumption more than 4 times per week (1.4) was shown as a risk factor in Indian and Iranian subjects respectively. Regular consumption of Soya (0.3), almond (0.5), fish (0.5), fruits (0.4) and milk tea 4 cups per day and more (0.4) appeared to be significant protective factors in India. Regular consumption of cheese (0.5), milk (0.5), chicken (0.4), egg (0.6), fruit (0.4), tea 7 cups per day and more (0.3) were found to be significant protective factors in Iran. Exercises were shown as protective factor in Iran (0.4) and India (0.4). There were no significant differences in association of risk factors and osteoporosis between Iranian and Indian subjects.
CONCLUSIONS: Osteoporosis in Iranian and Indian subjects also appears to be associated with several known risk factors that well described in the literature. There were no significant differences in association of risk factors and osteoporosis between Iranian and Indian subjects. It was shown a protective role of certain nutritional dietary components and also exercises in both populations and can be exploited in preventive educational strategies on osteoporosis in these populations.
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