Study Selection: Searches of the term biopsychosocial in the literature resulted in 1622 journal citations. This number was reduced with additional searches; 112 citations satisfied the final search criteria and pertained to the discussion.
Data Extraction: The journals were selected based on relevance to the biopsychosocial model of pain, acute and chronic pain states, operant and cognitive behavioural principles and the human response to stressful stimuli. Discussion is presented on how these principles may relate to chiropractic management in the broader context.
Data Synthesis: From the literature, we found that pain has traditionally been reported as an elusive condition with numerous causes. Many variables influence pain behaviours and include the biological, physiological and psychological. These factors appear to be interrelated and provide a basis for a holistic biopsychosocial approach to the management of pain in a patient-centred approach to care.
Conclusion: The application of principles inherent in the biopsychosocial model of pain should receive widespread acknowledgement and utilisation by chiropractors. It is only with the appropriate inclusion of mind-body approaches to management that the full impact of pain and disease may be addressed. Further research is warranted to test the usefulness of mind-body approaches in the delivery of chiropractic services.
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