The neurological features of acromegaly are reviewed and two cases are reported. The most common neurological complications of active hypersomatotropism are headache, acroparesthesia and visual disturbance. Primary peripheral neuropathy, myopathy, entrapment myelopathy and/or cauda equina syndrome are uncommon, especially in young acromegalics. It is postulated that peripheral neuropathy in acromegaly is due to the entrapment of a nerve secondary to a soft tissue edematous mechanism by traumatic compression, angulation and/or stretching of the nerve in acquired extraspinal intermuscular, fibrous or osseofibrous tunnel stenosis; and/or in acquired spinal lateral recess stenosis, rather than true primary neuropathic or secondary endocrinological complications of hypersomatotropism. Proximal weakness is more likely arthropathic rather than myopathic, neuropathic or endocrinologic. Differential diagnosis of backache is briefly discussed. Further investigations of the mechanisms and the conservative treatment for neurological involvements in acromegaly are needed.
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